RATIONAL METHOD to INTRO TO
SCIENTIFIC GOVERNMENT (Sections 1 to 9)
If people are deprived of property rights in the goods they have produced, by taxation or monopolies etc., the demand for products in exchange is reduced. This results in decreased production, with worsening unemployment and poverty. People need the right to equal opportunities to work, but have the obligation to pay towards public purposes for the value of the land or resource with which they work, so far as that value is generated by society
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CONTENTS of "Page" 2
1. The Rational Method 6. Basic Phenomena
2. Incentive Legislation 7. Scientific Government
3. Constitutional Limitations 8. Basic Justice
4. Illegal Government 9. Introduction to Scientific Government
5. Constitutional Safeguards

CONTENTS of "Page" 3
10. The Laws of Economic Science 11. The Functions of Government

Scientific Economics and the Art of Government_Scientific Economics and the Art of Government

CONTENTS of "Page" 4
12. Functions in which Governments
should not interfere
14. Population
15. Immigration
13. Money 16. Invariable Factors and Responsibility
CONTENTS of "Page" 5
17. Democratic Government 20. Peaceful, Useful and Happy Co-existence
18. Private Monopolies and Privileges 21. Conclusion
19. The Sufficiency of Economic Rent


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This is a famous and influential thinker* who has been semi-erased from history.

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1. THE RATIONAL METHOD
PUBLIC POLICY MUST CONFORM with the HIGHEST CONCEPT of BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS
1. The normal method of forming opinions and drafting policies is to observe one's surroundings and endeavour to isolate invariable phenomena from the incidental.
From this a hypothesis (a working theory) is formed, which should be subjected to the test of inductive and deductive comparison in order to confirm or amend the hypothesis.
This is the method known as logical reasoning.
When all such procedures have been carried out we are left with a sequence of phenomena which are found to be invariable. These are then classified as scientific.
The physical sciences such as physics and chemistry are now well recognised and established. These control the production of wealth which in one form or another is labour applied to land and its environment.
The supply and demand, and therefore the production of wealth, however, also depends to an extent on the conditions of distribution.
In this regard we observe two basic factors:-
(i) A race of productive people endowed with needs and desires, and with rational and physical powers for the satisfaction of such.
(ii) A physical earth and environment, complete with flora and fauna, adapted for the satsifaction of human needs and desires.

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In order that each person shall be motivated to provide for his/her own requirements and those of their dependents, without being encumbent on others, it is necessary to ensure that all people have equality of opportunity to apply their labour to the earth, which is the source of all wealth, and the field of all human endeavour.
The science of political economy deals with the distribution of wealth in the relationships of people with each other and with the earth.

Scientific Economics and the Art of Government_ Scientific Economics and the Art of Government

It is noteworthy that all people have different talents and aspirations, and that with the pressure of population the earth develops different potentials for use, which the free market evaluates.
An equal division of the earth to each person, therefore, cannot provide equity, nor is this possible within a finite life span--with people continually dying and others being born.
A farmer might require a thousand acres of outer regional land to support his family, whereas a clerical worker can earn a living from a few square metres of centrally-situated land in a high-rise building.
The science of political economy determines the distribution of wealth, evaluated by market forces without conscious effort or cost, and without the interference of government.
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SEVEN LAWS
This is unfolded with explanations where necessary in what follows:-
The physical sciences are enormously complex, yet there are no problems of observance because there are automatic penalties for breaches, and offenders are easily identified.
The science of political economy, by comparison, is the essence of simplicity. There are only seven laws which may be learned and memorised by anyone of average intelligence in a few hours, and, moreover, are obvious, once attention is drawn to them.
There are also automatic penalties for non-observance, as with the physical sciences, but these are not so closely related to breaches, and so it is more difficult to identify offenders.
The penalties for unethical conformity are social consequences:--unemployment, poverty, crime, and social disorder; and the rewards, distributed among the favoured few, are unearned income of enormous dimensions. The amount of unearned income in Australia is more than $50,000 million a year, and in countries of smaller land mass and a greater density of population the amount is much more.

Scientific Economics and the Art of Government _Scientific Economics and the Art of Government

The basic crime is withholding land from use for speculative unearned gain, and the diversion of economic rent from all the people who created it, to lanmd monopolists and speculators who, as such, contribute nothing to the value of land.
Only economic students can relate the cause of unemployment, poverty and crime, etc., to the enactment of bad laws by politicians, relating to the conditions of land tenure and the collection of public revenue.
The science of political economy is based on the observation that all people, in order to live a normal life with freedom of choice, require the right of equality of opportunity to apply their labour to land, with the corresponding obligation to pay for the market-assessed value of socially-generated advantages which attach to each particular land holding above the margin of production. (This is already being paid by the tenant land users to land owners, who have not created the value, instead of to the community, which has created the value.)
This condition could be said to be the basis of political economy; it is certainly the most important consideration, because without its application, market forces cannot operate justly for the good of all people.
The right of access to land is inherent in human nature. It is not the gift of governments, and what governments do not bestow they have no warrant to take away

2. INCENTIVE LEGISLATION

Legislation must make it more rewarding to do what is right than to do what is wrong. Biblical injunction states, in the Lord's Prayer: "Lead us not into temptation." This is of the utmost importance. It is also stated: "Thy will be done, as in heaven, so upon the earth."

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3. CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS

It is noted that in the Western Australian Constitution, governments are only permitted to make laws for the "Peace, Order and Good Government of the Colony." It is assumed that there are similar provisions in the other State constitutions.
In the Commonwealth Constitution also, in Section 51, powers are conferred under 40 parts, each of which is limited by the provision that legislation is for Peace, Order and Good Government.
The ruling monarch is vested with the power to ensure that all legislation is consistent with the constitutional provisions. This power is transferred to state and commonwealth governors, who are responsible to the ruling monarch. (It is noted that governors are no longer appointed by the ruling monarch, but by the state Premiers and by the Prime Minister. To reject constitutionally illegal legislation would result in their dismissal.
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To prevent such travesties of justice, the people should be enjoined with the ruling monarch. This would confer an obligation on the people also, to restrict governments to their legal functions. A referendum of the people in each state and of the commonwealth would be required to enjoin the people.

4. ILLEGAL GOVERNMENT

Laws which create strife, disorder, and bad government, exemplified by massive unemployment, dire poverty, and crime, etc., are obviously illegal, judging by the provisions of the constitutions.

Scientific Economics and the Art of Government_ Scientific Economics and the Art of Government

5. CONSITUTIONAL SAFEGUARDS

At one time the ruling monarch and the appointed governors had the power to disallow laws which did not conform with the Constitutions. Governors are now appointed by the leader of the Cabinets. Because it seems that if the governors disallowed unconsitutional legislation, they could be unjustly dismissed, the people's constitutional safeguards nowadays do not have their full power.

6. BASIC PHENOMENA

There are two basic phenomena:- The Earth, and People.
(i) Planet Earth is the source of all wealth, and is the field of all human endeavour. It is a free gift of the Creator equally to all His people: "The earth hath He given to the children of men." (Psalm 115:16). "He formed it to be inhabited." (Isaiah 45:18). "And ye shall inherit it, one as well as another." (Ezekiel 47:14).
(ii) PEOPLE can only live from access to the Earth, deprived of which they will die. Given restricted access to it, they will live a restricted unnatural existence.
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It follows, that all PEOPLE ought to have equality of opportunity to apply their labour of hand or brain, directly or indirectly, to the EARTH. This is the essential human right.

7. SCIENTIFIC GOVERNMENT

The world is governed by science, which is defined as invariable phenomena.
(i) The physical sciences control the production of wealth, - physics, chemistry, electronics, magnetism, tensile strength, expansion and conraction, astronomy, etc.
These are highly complex sciences but there are few problems with observance, because of the penalties for non-observance. Pipes would burst, bridges would collapse, trains would be derailed, etc., and some people would be killed, but the designers would be identified and discredited. This fact keeps them efficient and honest.
It is more rewarding to do what is right than what is wrong.

(ii) The abstract science of political economy controls the distribution of wealth. This, by comparison, is the essence of simplicity, but the results of non-observance of the laws are not so easily traced to causes.
If the returns from socially-generated land rental values do not go to the whole community, unemployment and poverty will arise, but the politicians who legislated in favour of land monopoly can only be identified by students of the science of political economy.
This knowledge is withheld from the people by the 60% media monopoly.

8. BASIC JUSTICE
Justice in relation to human rights must be observed. Justice is placed first in scriptural injunction:- "What does the Lord require of thee? To do justly, to love mercy and walk humbly before God." (Micah 6:8)
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It is not possible to love mercy or to walk humbly before God, if a person is unjust to the neighbours, or is unmoved by the injustice of others.

9. INTRODUCTION TO SCIENTIFIC GOVERNMENT
The laws of the science of political economy are defined and discussed in section 10. It is noted that production is governed by the physical sciences, and, in a similar way, any unscientific interference with the laws of distribution will also affect production.
If people are deprived of property rights in the goods they have produced, by taxation or monopolies etc., the demand for products in exchange is reduced. This results in decreased production, with worsening unemployment and poverty.
The process of logical reasoning has been established, whereby invariable phenomena is revealed and classified as scientific. We must set aside preconceived ideas which have not been subjected to rational examination, and follow the course of science wherever it may lead.
If it is scientific, then fundamental human rights, common sense, and sound business principles ought to apply. (To be continued.) (To be continued)

Scientific Economics and the Art of Government_ Scientific Economics and the Art of Government


Find more by contacting economic reform groups through the Links and Contacts list, or us on: http://www.multiline.com.au/~georgist, or e-mail to: georgist@multiline.com.au, or call at Georgist Education Association, 10 Broome St. (off Douglas Ave., near Canning Hwy.), South Perth, some weekdays 11am - 3pm. Telephone (08) 9367 5386 before coming.
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* PICTURE: The thinker pictured above is Henry George, 2 Sep. 1839 to 29 Oct. 1897, seaman, goldseeker, printer, economic reformer. Publications: 1871 Our Land and Land Policy, 1879 Progress and Poverty, 1881 The Irish Land Question, 1883 Social Problems, 1897 The Science of Political Economy. He made lecture tours in America, Australia, England and Ireland, and was nearly elected Mayor of New York City in 1886. (Copyright © 1993, 1994 Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia.)

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Sections 1 to 9 put on WWW 12 November 1996, last revised 15 June 1998
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